Blepharoplasty is a scientific term coming from the ancient Greek words – blepharon (eyelid) and plassein (to form). This particular surgical procedure was firstly described by a first-century Roman physician Aulus Cornelius Celsus as an excision in the skin to relax the eyelids in his book “De Medicine”.
In an eyelid surgical procedure, the usual correction involves the upper and the lower eyelids, as well as the surrounding tissues, predominantly the eyebrows.
Candidates for eyelid surgery share certain important characteristics. They need to have appropriate skin elasticity so the skin can conform to its new, improved contours. They ideally have good elasticity and proper supporting eyelid to provide support and contribute to satisfying results. It is necessary for patients to have realistic expectations, i.e they should understand not only what surgery can accomplish, but also the potential limitations of this surgical procedures.
Blepharoplasty is a surgical procedure aimed to correct the deformities, disfigurations of the eyelids and for aesthetically modifying the eyelids and the whole eye region. Thanks to the excision of excess tissues, such as skin and fat and the reinforcement of the muscle and tendon tissues, any blepharoplasty procedure corrects functional and cosmetic eyelid problems. The procedure can be combined with correction of the eyebrow ptosis by the use of internal brow lift using loop stitches or special absorbable anchor with hooks.
Concerning the upper eyelid, a blepharoplasty can also improve the reduction of peripheral vision, due to the slackness of the upper-eyelid skin draping over the eyelashes. The outer and the upper portions of the field of vision of the patient are affected , with related problems in performing most activities of daily living.
Likewise, lower eyelid blepharoplasty can successfully address the aesthetic matters of excess eyelid skin, slackness of the eye-muscles and excess orbital fat forming infraorbital bags.
In the case of lower eyelid laxity a special technique known as a canthopexy can be performed. A special stitch is placed near the outer corner of the lower eyelid to tighten the loose supporting eyelid tissues such as tarsal plate and cantal ligament.
The Asian blepharoplasty, also known as “double eyelid surgery”, is an aesthetic eyelid surgery where the skin of the upper eyelid is reshaped and missing supra-tarsal fold is created to form Caucasian shape of the eye. If needed the epicanthus – skin fold in the region of internal eye corner – can be improved.
A blepharoplasty usually is performed under local anesthesia through small surgical incisions made along the natural skin lines of the upper and the lower eyelids. The creases finally hide the scars with a really aesthetic final result. The incisions can be made from the conjunctiva and the inner surface of the lower eyelid, i.e. the so-called “trans-conjunctival blepharoplasty”. This technique permits the removal of the lower-eyelid fat excess without leaving a visible scar, but does not allow the removal of excess eyelid-skin. A blepharoplasty operation usually requires 1–2 hours to be successfully and safely completed.