Microsurgery is a particular surgical branch where specialized operating microscopes and fine instruments are used to perform difficult operations on tiny structures.

Microsurgical techniques are utilized by several specialties today, such as:

• general surgery
• orthopedic surgery
• hand surgery
• plastic surgery
• urology
• ophthalmology
• gynecological surgery
• otolaryngology
• neurosurgery
• oral and maxillofacial surgery
• pediatric surgery

In Hand surgery and Orthopaedic Surgery the use of magnifications up to fourty times and stitches finer than a hair give renders physicians able to repair transected blood vessels and nerves of less than 1 mm of diameter. The continuity of blood vessels or nerves re-established in small nerves and vessels has a topical impact on the potential to restore the anatomy and function in individuals affected by congenital malformations, trauma or cancer.

This is one of the most interesting and funny activity for a microsurgeon loving to rebuild/reconnect any damaged structure after a traumatic event or restoring sensitivity, fertility or function after a transient period.
Fifty years ago the advances in surgical techniques and microsurgery allowed surgeons to successfully replant fingers and limbs and with time to replace fingers with vascularized toe transfers or to transfer free flaps borrowing tissues from regions of relative excess (skin, bone, muscles) and covering wounds or restoring missing structures. Major advances have also been made in the microsurgical therapy of previously injured nerves allowing for the return of lost motion and sensation. The use of the best nerve repairs, nerve grafts, nerve tubes and transfer have provided new hopes in people affected by palsies with severe body impairment.

For the aforementioned reason if indicated and in the absence of contraindications, everything must be done
as soon as possible to restore the integrity of distal parts of the patient. The sense of social exclusion and segregation due to an accident should be prevented in the 20th  century.